Posts Tagged ‘Address Validation International’

Understanding Addresses in Australia

The country of Australia, officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia, consists of six states and two territories. There are over 13 million known deliverable addresses in Australia. This article breaks down the standard format used for Australian addresses, and what to check for in each field of these addresses.

Postal Services

Mail in Australia is handled by Australia Post, formally known as the Australian Postal Corporation. Australia Post is a government-owned corporation that was founded in 1809.

International Country Code

First, let’s look at how Australia defines its country codes, as well as its states and territories. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published the ISO 3166 standard, officially known as Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.

The ISO 3166 standard consists of three parts:

Part
ISODescription
1
ISO 3166-1Country Codes – defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
2
ISO 3166-2Country subdivision code – defines codes for the names of primary subdivisions of a country, such as a state or a province.
3ISO 3166-3Code for formerly used names of countries – defines codes for country names that have been removed from ISO 3166-1.

ISO 3166-1, which defines country codes, contains three sets of country codes:
ISO Country CodesDescription
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2:Defines a country as a two-letter country code, commonly referred to as the ISO, ISO2, or ISO-2.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3:Defines a country as a three-letter country code, commonly referred to as ISO3, or ISO-3.
ISO 3166-1 numericDefines a country as a three-digit country code.

ISO 3166-1 Country Codes – Australia

Country Code TypeCountry Code
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codeAU
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 codeAUS
ISO 3166-1 numeric code36

ISO 3166-2 Codes

The ISO currently lists codes for Australia’s six states and two of its territories.

ISO 3166-2 codeSubdivision NameSubdivision category
AU-NSWNew South WalesState
AU-QLDQueenslandState
AU-SASouth AustraliaState
AU-TASTasmaniaState
AU-VICVictoriaState
AU-WAWestern AustraliaState
AU-ACTAustralian Capital TerritoryTerritory
AU-NTNorthern TerritoryTerritory

Address Format

Now, let’s look at how delivery addresses are constructed. The address format for deliverable mail in Australia is defined by Australia Post, where an address is made up of several components.

PositionAddress ComponentDescriptionFormatRequirementExample
First lineRecipientThe name of the person, company or organization.Use common abbreviations in titles and distinctions. Also,avoid unnecessary punctuation.RequiredIssac Nichols
Second line and third line if necessaryReference DetailsWhen necessary, the name of the person’s job/position and/orthe name of the company, organization or department.OptionalPostmaster Australia Post
Second to last lineThoroughfareThe street address, Box number or Locked Bag number. If athoroughfare is not available, then include thebuilding/complex name in its place. Include building subunitand floor/level when necessary.Use common abbreviations where applicable. Also, no punctuationallowed.Required111 Bourke St
Last line, first componentLocality or Delivery officeThe full name of the city, suburb, placename or Post Office-Delivery Centre (DC) or a Business Centre (BC). Note that thedelivery locality may not necessarily be the same as thegeographic locality.Must be in UPPER CASE. Also, no punctuation allowed.RequiredMELBOURNE
Last line, second componentState or TerritoryThe abbreviated format of the state or territory.The abbreviation of the state or territory and not the fullname. Also, no punctuation allowed.RequiredVIC
Last line, third componentPostcodeA four-digit numeric code used to identify the postal deliveryarea.Do not omit leading zeros. Also, no punctuation allowed.Required300

States

NameAbbreviationPostcode Ranges
New South WalesNSW1000—1999 *
2000—2599
2619—2899
2921—2999
QueenslandQLD4000—4999
9000—9999 *
South AustraliaSA5000—5799
5800—5999 *
TasmaniaTAS7000—7799
7800—7999 *
VictoriaVIC3000—3999
8000—8999 *
Western AustraliaWA6000—6797
6800—6999 *
* Reserved for PO Boxes and Large Volume Receivers (LVR)

Territories

NameAbbreviationPostcode Ranges
Australian Capital TerritoryACT0200—0299*
2600—2618
2900—2920
Northern TerritoryNT0800—0899
0900—0999*
* Reserved for PO Boxes and Large Volume Receivers (LVR)

External Territories

Australia has three inhabited external territories. They do not use their own name and abbreviation in Australia Post’s postcode system and are instead assigned the name of another state.

NameAbbreviationPostcode
Norfolk IslandNSW2899
Christmas IslandWA6798
Cocos (keeling) IslandWA6799

Postcodes

Australian postcodes are four-digit codes that are used to help sort and route mail. The first two digits often represent which state or territory the postcode belongs too, with the exception of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) which is embedded in New South Wales (NSW).

The postcode is the third and final address component in the last address line, following the Locality and State/Territory components. However, if the envelope being used includes four postcode squares in the bottom right corner then Australia Post prefers that you fill those boxes in with the postcode instead.

Postcode vs Geography

Some postcodes may cover two or more states or territories. For example, the postcode 0872 is currently used to cover 87 localities located in West Australia (WA), South Australia (SA) and Northern Territory (NT). Australia Post sometimes finds it easier to send mail through a post office located in one state/territory for an address geographically located in another state/territory. So, it is not uncommon to find an address with a mailing address that does not match its physical address or geographic location.

Postcodes do not always correspond to a geographic location. Many postcodes are reserved for post office (PO) boxes and some are reserved for large organizations. Some large companies, government agencies, and organizations are classified as Large Volume Receivers (LVR) and will have their own unique postcode. For example, the postcode 0200 corresponds to the Australian National University

Address Validation International: Overcoming Cultural Idiosyncrasies and Postal Format Variables

The above content provides a general overview of Australia and the address format specified by Australia Post. Overall, there are more than 18 different address components, elements and fragments to consider when working with Australian addresses. There are also monthly data updates published by Australia Post to stay on top of.

As with most countries, Service Objects’ Address Validation International (AVI) is capable of processing and validating deliverable addresses in Australia. By understanding this country’s very structured address format, including specific idiosyncrasies such as required upper-case municipality addresses, state and territory abbreviations, and four-digit postal codes, you can automate much of the process of ensuring your contact data quality for this important international market.

Contact Country Detection: How It Works

In a previous blog, we discussed the benefits of using DOTS Address Detective – International to detect a contact’s country. This blog will discuss some of the challenges surrounding country detection in more detail, as well as provide an overview on how we determine the best country from your data.

Contact Components

When trying to append a country to a contact, we have four main components to examine.

  1. Address
  2. Phone
  3. IP Address
  4. Email

Each component must be carefully evaluated on its own merit before it can be used to help identify a country for the contact.

Address Component

The Address component may represent a contact’s physical location or mailable address. It is the most diverse and complex of all the components. International addresses do not follow a singular format, language or standard. Each country has its own set of rules and standards, which can also make the storage of international addresses problematic for US-centric CRMs.

This also means that is common for a contact’s address to be incorrect and/or incomplete. Additionally, some businesses are not always interested in capturing a mailable address and only wish to store a contact’s region. Depending on who is entering the contact address and how it is being stored, it would not be unreasonable to expect this data to be flawed in more ways than one.

Knowing the country is critical to processing most addresses. It determines the address format, which is needed to identify individual address elements, which in turn are needed to identify a locality, postal code or region. With that said, our sophisticated data-driven algorithms are not dependent on completeness and allow for a wide variety of formats and languages.

If you think you can identify a country’s address, take our fun, short Country Quiz.

Similar to the DOTS Address Validation International service, the address component consists of Address Lines 1-8, Locality, Admin Area and Postal Code. The address can be entered entirely in lines 1-8 or in combination with the Locality, Admin Area and Postal Code fields. Address line order does not matter, and common mistakes like putting an address value into the wrong address field are detected and handled.

Not all countries follow the US city-state pairing format or the equivalent locality admin area pairing. Many international addresses do not include an admin area, which can make country detection difficult since many localities from around the world can often share names. Take Venice, for example, which can be found in separate locations of three different countries.

LocalityAdmin AreaCountry
VeniceVeniceItaly
VeniceAlbertaCanada
VeniceCaliforniaUSA
VeniceFloridaUSA

If no other address information besides the name Venice was made available, one would be left having to choose between these three countries. However, by making use of other contact data such as a phone number, IP address and/or email, the service can cross reference various datasets to better determine which country is the best match. Then again, if the locality was entered as Venezia, the Italian endonym for Venice, there would be less ambiguity and the country Italy would be the clear choice.

Phone Component

The phone component consists of a contact’s phone number(s). The format of a phone number is dictated by its country’s numbering plan. Some countries have their own numbering plan, while others share one. The USA and Canada, for example, share the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), whereas the UK and its crown dependencies share the UK National Telephone Numbering Plan. Most countries conform to the E.164 International Telecommunication Numbering Plan, which is published by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

The E.164 Numbering Plan
The E.164 currently provides five number structures (numbering plans) for international phone numbers:

  1. International ITU-T E.164-number for geographic areas.
  2. International ITU-T E.164-number for global services.
  3. International ITU-T E.164-number for Networks.
  4. International ITU-T E.164-number for groups of countries.
  5. International ITU-T E.164-number for trials.

Each structure has its own set of rules and requirements, but telephone numbers that conform to E.164, in general, will adhere to the following:

  • The recommended maximum length for a telephone number is 15 digits.
  • Telephone numbers will begin with a Country Code (CC).
  • Telephone numbers will not include Prefixes and Suffixes

Country Codes
Country calling codes are published by the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau (TSB). Depending on which E.164 structure is being used the country code (CC) may vary between 1 to 3 digits or may be fixed to 3 digits. Country codes are followed by the destination number in accordance with the E.164 numbering plan. When storing a country code or an international (E.164) number, the number is commonly prefixed with a plus symbol (+) to indicate that when dialing the number, one must first dial the appropriate international call prefix to complete the call.

Prefixes
International call prefixes (also known as call out codes, dial out codes, exit codes or international access codes) are used to make a call from one country to another. The Prefix is dialed before the country code (CC) and the destination telephone number. Prefixes are not a part of the E.164 numbering plan and it is recommended to not include them as they can interfere with country code identification.

Making the Call
Suppose you have a contact in the UK with the following number saved in your CRM, ‘+44 123 456 7890 Ext. 123’, and you wanted to call this person from within the USA. To call them, you would dial 011441234567890, and then after you have been successfully connected you would next dial your contact’s extension of 123.

The table below shows how the prefix and suffix are not a part of an international number.

PrefixInternational NumberSuffix
Country CodeDestination Number
011441234567890Ext. 123

Now suppose that you wanted to call this contact again, but this time you are in Sweden and not in the USA. Instead of dialing the 011 prefix, which is shared by all countries in the North American Numbering Plan (NANP), you would dial 00 which is the prefix used by many countries in Europe.

At Service Objects, we understand that not all phone numbers will conform to an E.164 numbering plan and that many numbers will have missing country codes, which why our services make use of a wide variety of datasets and are flexible enough to intelligently identify a country.

IP Address Component

Not all companies capture a contact’s IP address, but when they do they are most likely capturing it via the web form the contact used to submit their information. The captured IP address and the location for that IP is often for the registered owner of the IP, so if the contact filled out a web form from their home computer then it is likely that the IP is for their Internet Service Provider (ISP). If they filled it out from their office computer, then the IP address may belong to the business or to the business’s ISP. IP based geolocation systems will commonly return a general location for the owner of the IP, which in most cases is the end user’s ISP.

There is often a misconception that IP based geolocation services will always return an end user’s exact location. For example, that the IP address assigned to a mobile smartphone can alone be used to pinpoint and track the phone’s exact location. This is simply not true. In most cases, IP based geolocation services will return the city and/or the metropolitan area for where the IP address is commonly served. Subscribers will generally be located within the serviceable area of their ISP, and so the IP based location can be used in confidence to identify the region of the end user.

Identifying Anonymous Users
If a contact used a Virtual Private Network (VPN) or Proxy connection, such as a Tor network, when filling out a form then that means that the end user’s true IP address was masked and it was not captured. Some users will make use of methods such as these to try and remain anonymous and prevent others from capturing their true IP address. These methods are not only used to mask a user’s true location, but they can also be used to make a user appear to be from somewhere they are not. This is commonly done to circumvent region locked sites and services, however not all VPN and proxy connections are used for this purpose. Many businesses make use of VPN and proxy connections to connect their employees, sites and services from various regions, including remote employees.

A service like DOTS IP Address Validation is capable of identifying proxy related IP addresses as well as IP addresses associated with malicious activity. By leveraging this data, the country detection algorithm can determine if the IP is trustworthy and if the IP based location is genuine.

Email Component

The email address component uses the contact email address to identify where in the world the mail servers are located. The location of the mail server should not be confused with the location of the mail sender; after all, one of the benefits of email is that you can send and receive it from just about anywhere an internet connection is available. This means that a contact may not necessarily be anywhere near where the mail server is located and could potentially reside in an entirely different country. It’s also worth noting that the domain name, including the Top Level Domain (TLD), can be misleading.

For example, let’s suppose we have an email with a domain that consists of Spanish words and the TLD country code for Spain (ES), like: ejemplo@una_palabra_espanola.es

While the above example email address may appear to be for a contact for Spain, the company could instead be hosted or even located in another country, such as the USA. Another possibility is that the company is located in one country and has their email handled by a provider in another. It is quite common for businesses to outsource email duties to specialized email providers.

Some domains have mail servers located in multiple countries and regions and are not tied to a single location. So, email addresses alone cannot be used to accurately and confidently identify a contact’s country, as doing so would be too far-reaching. However, the country or countries for the email component can be used in some cases to help identify a single country when used in combination with other contact data.

Which Country is Best

As you can see, each contact component is carefully analyzed to the point where a country may be singled out for each one, but the next step is to now determine which country best represents the overall contact. By taking the countries that are related for each component and carefully weighing their relevance as well as cross-examining them we can in many cases successfully identify the single best country that best exemplifies the contact.

As previously mentioned, contact components like the Address and Email can result in more than one country. The country detection algorithm takes all possible countries into account, so even though a single component may not have a clear country winner, a best match can be found between all the components. Some components have a stronger influence than others. For example, the IP address and email address components do not have as much influence as the address and phone components since they are not always directly related to where a contact resides.

In general, the more complete the contact information is, the more the country detection algorithm will have to work with, choosing a best overall country. However, even when a few contact components are available, the service will still be able to make do with the information it receives.

Mailing Address vs Physical Address: What’s the Difference?

Is a mailing address the same as a physical address?

No, not always.

In general, a mailing address can often be the same as a street address, but this is not always the case. To understand why, we must first acknowledge that the two types of addresses are often defined and regulated by two separate authoritative entities that generally serve different purposes.

Different Purposes

A mailing address, or postal address, is often regulated by postal authorities that are commonly associated with services related to the sending and receiving of mail. For example, in the US this would be USPS. In the United Kingdom, Royal Mail. Deutsche Post DHL Group for Germany and JP Post or Japan Post (日本郵政 Nippon Yūsei) for Japan. These postal authorities can be public government agencies, like the USPS, or privatized companies like Royal Mail, Deutsche Post and JP Post- which were sold off by their governments.

A physical address, sometimes referred to as a street address, is used to describe where a place is geographically located. It often pertains to a geographic location under the jurisdiction of an administrative area or region that has some government function. The physical address should have a set geographic boundary that is recognized and governed by an administrative area. If an address resides in an incorporated area then its municipality is generally responsible for providing some public services, such as law enforcement, public schools, sanitation, water works etc. If an address resides in a rural and/or unincorporated area, then sometimes these services are provided by the governing state, territory, province, county etc. Sometimes certain services are not available at all.

Location, Location, Location

Where a physical address is geographically located will often determine what public and private services it has access to. For example, a rural address may not have access to readily available public transportation or high-speed internet, whereas an address in a metropolitan area likely would.

In the US, it is the job of the US Census Bureau (USCB) to collect and produce data about the people. Both public and private agencies rely on the various datasets produced by the USCB, such as geographic and demographic data, to help make informed decisions. The USCB produces various Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) datasets that are designed for use with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and various mapping projects. TIGER products are spatial datasets used to describe geographic features such as boundaries, roads, address information, water features, as well as legal and statistical geographic areas.

TIGER products are widely used in many US related geolocation solutions, including our own DOTS Address Geocode US service, and are considered a standard when it comes to working with geographic locations and features in the US and its territories. TIGER data, along with other topological geographic mapping datasets, can be used to help geocode a physical address to varying degrees of accuracy.

Choosing the Right Route

Mailing address datasets are generally used to help facilitate and ensure the delivery of mail, and they are not necessarily one-to-one comparable with geographic datasets like TIGER. The main reason being that these datasets are intended to serve different purposes. Let’s take USPS ZIP Codes for example. USPS ZIP Codes are not geographic areas. They are a collection of mail delivery routes and they help identify individual post offices and delivery stations that are associated with mailing addresses.

ZIP Codes help the USPS determine the best route for delivering mail. It is not uncommon for a physical address, that is geographically located in one locality, to be assigned to a different locality in its mailing address. This is common for areas where a single post office or delivery station may serve multiple localities.

Not All Mailing Addresses Are Physical Addresses

Here’s an interesting example of an address that is physically or geographically located in one state of the US, but the mailing address has it listed as being in another.

Physical Address:
25777 Co Rd 103
Jelm, CO 82063

USPS Mailing Address:
25777 Co Rd 103
Jelm, WY 82063-9203

Using Google Maps to inspect the address and the surrounding area, we see that the location is near a state line, but the address is clearly in Colorado and not in Wyoming.

According to Google the physical address is approximately six miles from the Wyoming and Colorado state line. When we investigated other addresses in the area we found that they too had a mailing address that said they were in Wyoming.

When we reached out to USPS to inquire about the addresses they acknowledged that they were indeed geographically located in Colorado; however, their ZIP code is associated with a USPS Post Office located in Jelm, Wyoming and that is the reason why the mailing addresses are for Jelm, Wyoming and not Jelm, Colorado. It may be confusing to base an address’ location on where it’s post office is located, but logistically it makes sense for the postal authority, USPS.

It’s also not uncommon for some rural areas to use general delivery, where mail is not delivered to a recipient’s physical address and it is instead kept at a post office that the recipient will go to and pick it up. If the post office is located in a different locality, then the recipient’s mailing address would be different from their physical address.

Other examples of mailing addresses that are not physical addresses include:

  • Post Office Box (PO Box) and Private Mailbox (PMB) – Many individuals and businesses use PO Boxes and Private Mailboxes as an alternative to their physical address. Postal Agencies like UPS offer PMBs as Personal Mailboxes, and while they do advertise that their PMBs include a street address it still is not the recipient’s physical address.
  • Centralized Mailboxes – Also known as cluster mailboxes or community mailboxes, are basically a large communal mail box made up of multiple individual boxes clustered together. The mailing address for a centralized mailing box does not have to reflect the recipient’s physical address as each box in the cluster will have its own unique identifier.
  • Unique ZIP Codes – These are ZIP codes that are assigned to some single high-volume addresses such as universities, government agencies and some large businesses. Postal carriers will deliver mail to the organization’s mail department, and it then delivers the mail to the final destination which may be in an entirely different geographic location.
  • Military Addresses – Are used to route mail for military mail services, such as the US Military Postal Service (MPS), the British Forces Post Office (BFPO) and the German Armed Forces (Feldpost). Civilian postal carriers deliver mail to military post offices which then perform the final delivery.

Which Address to use

For some people, their physical address is the same as their mailing address and when asked for their address they don’t have to worry about which address to give because they are both the same. For others who don’t have matching mailing and physical addresses, some consideration is needed. If the purpose of the address is to send mail to it, then the mailing address should be given. If the address is needed to locate where a place is geographically located, then the physical address is needed.

The answer should be clear but sometimes there are misconceptions and confusion and on the behalf of the party requesting the address. The party asking for the address may simply be unaware that not all mailing addresses are physical addresses and that not all physical address have mailing addresses. If the intent on how an address is to be used is not made clear, then the person giving their address could potentially give the wrong one if the two are not the same. Sometimes the person giving the address will be sure to specifically ask if they want the mailing address or the street address, but the party asking may be unaware of the difference and inadvertently ask for the wrong one.

Shipping Address and Physical Address

There can also be some confusing cases when it comes to the terms billing address and shipping address. Likely, the billing address will be a mailing address, but what about the shipping address? Let us suppose that a customer wants to have a package delivered to their doorstep. They want to enter their physical address, but they know that USPS does not deliver mail to their physical address. However, they do know that UPS does deliver to their door, but they are not sure about FedEx. If the site they are purchasing from gives them the option to choose the shipping carrier then that helps, but if it doesn’t then which address do they choose to give? Worse yet, what if the customer is unaware that their physical address is undeliverable?

Helpful Tools

When businesses and organizations work with addresses it is important to know where they are located and if they are valid and deliverable. Otherwise, they risk making uninformed decisions that can end up wasting valuable resources like time and money and damaging customer relationships. That is why Service Objects provides various address related products to help prevent mistakes and reduce waste. Our services can quickly correct and standardize address to help determine where they are located and if they are valid and deliverable.

Feel free to test drive any of our Address products and see how we handle these scenarios.

For companies who deal with users in the United Kingdom, this reference guide can help you better understand how addresses in the UK are formatted and what makes an address valid.

Understanding Addresses in the United Kingdom

For companies who deal with users in the United Kingdom, this reference guide can help you better understand how UK addresses are formatted and what makes an address valid.

The United Kingdom: Three Nations, One Province, 29 Million Addresses

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – commonly referred to as Britain, the United Kingdom, or simply the UK – is made up of three nations and one province: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. There are approximately 29 million known deliverable addresses in the UK, with over five thousand addresses being added and removed monthly.

International Country Code

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) published the ISO 3166 standard, officially known as Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions.

The ISO 3166 standard consists of three parts:

Part 1:
ISO 3166-1
Country Codes – defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
Part 2:
ISO 3166-2
Country subdivision code – defines codes for the names of primary subdivisions of a country, such as a state or a province.
Part 3:
ISO 3166-3
Code for formerly used names of countries – defines codes for country names that have been removed from ISO 3166-1.

 

ISO 3166-1, which defines country codes, contains three sets of country codes:

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: Defines a country as a two-letter country code, commonly referred to as the ISO, ISO2, or ISO-2.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: Defines a country as a three-letter country code, commonly referred to as numeric-3, ISO3, or ISO-3.

 

ISO 3166-1 Country Codes – United Kingdom

ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code ISO 3166-1 numeric code
GB GBR 826
Note that the alpha-2 code is GB and not UK.

 

ISO 3166-2 Country Codes

In the ISO, England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are not included in the ISO 3166-1 country list and are instead listed as subdivisions of GB in ISO 3166-2. However, their subdivision description is that of “country,” except for Northern Ireland, which is described as a “province.”

ISO 3166-2 code Subdivision Name Subdivision category
GB-ENG England Country
GB-SCT Scotland Country
GB-WLS Wales Country
GB-NIR Northern Ireland Province

 

UK vs. GB Country Code – FIPS vs. ISO 3166-1

The United States Federal Government developed the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) for use in computer systems by non-military government agencies and government contractors. Country codes are defined in the FIPS 10-4 standard, where the United Kingdom is listed as UK and not GB. However, where the FIPS 10-4 codes where defined for use in computer systems, the standard has been dropped by many institutes and agencies in preference to ISO 3166-1, making ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 the global standard.

Postal Services

Mail in the United Kingdom is primarily handled by Royal Mail. Royal Mail was established in 1516 by King Henry the VIII, and it was government owned for 499 years. There are other mail delivery services available in the market, but many of them use Royal Mail for the last mile delivery.

Address Format

The address format for mail delivery in the United Kingdom is defined by Royal Mail, where an address is made up of four elements. The elements should appear in the following order:

Address Element: Address Example: Element Names:
Premise Royal Mail
Flat 9, Wheatstone House
[Organization]
[Sub-Building], [Building Name]
[Building Number]*
Thoroughfare 47* Gorse View
School Road
[Dependent Thoroughfare]
[Thoroughfare]
Locality Southampton
Knodishall
Saxmundham
[Double Dependent Locality]
[Dependent Locality]
[Post Town]
Postcode SWA1AA [Postcode]

*NOTE: Although the building number appears with the thoroughfare, it is part of the Premise element.

Premise Elements

A mailing address premise is made up of the following elements:

Order Premise Element Name Description Example
1 Organization The name of the organization, and when necessary the name of the department within the organization, which is registered to the delivery address. Royal Mail
2 Sub-Building This is also known as a sub-premise, such as an apartment, flat, or suite. Flat 9
3 Building Name The name of the building of the business or residence. Wheatstone House
4 Building Number Also known as the premise number or address number, this number identifies the premise on the thoroughfare or dependent thoroughfare. 47

 

Not all elements are required, but enough must be given to identify a single unambiguous delivery point. Also, note that while the building number is a part of the premise element, it must be applied on the same line as its corresponding thoroughfare.

Thoroughfare Elements

A thoroughfare premise is made up of the following elements:

Order Thoroughfare Element Name Description Example
1 Dependent Thoroughfare Distinguishes a premise when a thoroughfare appears more than once in a post town. Gorse View
2 Thoroughfare This is also known as the street or road. School Road

 

Royal Mail defines three thoroughfare address possibilities:

  1. Thoroughfare without a dependent thoroughfare – When an address does not include a dependent thoroughfare, the element is to be omitted.
  2. Thoroughfare with a dependent thoroughfare – When an address contains both elements, Royal Mail instructs that the dependent thoroughfare is required and the thoroughfare is optional.
  3. No Thoroughfare – Not all addresses contain a thoroughfare, in which case the thoroughfare element is simply omitted.

Example:

Her Majesty the Queen
Buckingham Palace
London
SW1A 1AA

Locality Elements

The mail address Locality is made up of the following elements:

Order Locality Element Name Description Example
1 Double Dependent Locality Distinguishes a premise when an address thoroughfare appears more than once in the same post town and dependent Locality. Southampton
2 Dependent Locality Distinguishes a premise when an address thoroughfare appears more than once in the same post town. Knodishall
3 Post Town Also known as the Locality; however, the post town represents the postal delivery Locality and not necessarily the geographic Locality. Saxmundham

 

Other aspects of Locality elements you should be aware of:

1. The Post Town is required.
2. The initial letter of the Post Town must always be capitalized.
3. The Post Town may be written in all capital letters (uppercase). It is the only Locality element where this is allowed.

Postcode

The postcode is made up of the following elements:

Order Element Name Description Example
1 Postcode Also known as a postal code, this is an alpha-numeric code that is associated with one or more addresses along one or more thoroughfares. SW1A 1AA

 

The postcode must be written in all capital letters (uppercase) and must be the last address element. Royal Mail recommends that the postcode be listed as a singular element on the last line of the address; however, it may be preceded by either the county or post town on the same address line when separated by a space or on the preceding line.

Regarding County

Though the geographic county of an address is not required, according to the Royal Mail website regarding the inclusion of county, “you are welcome to do so.” However, the issue of listing geographic counties and postal counties has been the cause of some confusion over the years. Counties were removed from the address elements in the early 2000s, and they are no longer officially supported. This was due, in some part, to the boundaries of postal counties and geographic counties not matching up, so an address in one geographic county would be listed in a postal county of a different name.

Postcode Overview

The postcode is an alphanumeric code of varying length that is composed of two codes called the outward code and inward code. It ranges from six to eight characters in length with a single space to separate the two codes. A postcode may represent a group of addresses on a street or on a part of a street, a group of premises, or a single premise. On rare occasions, it may also represent a group of addresses on more than one street.

Postcode Format

Outward code

1. Postcode area
2. Postcode district

Inward Code

1. Postcode sector
2. Postcode unit

For example, in the postcode “SW1A 1AA” we have the following:

Name Example
Postcode SW1A 1AA
Outward code SW1A
Postcode area SW
Postcode district SW1A
Inward code 1AA
Postcode sector SW1A 1
Postcode unit AA

Outward Code

The outward code represents the first half of the postcode that precedes the single space separator. It is made up of the postcode area and postcode district. The length of the outward code is between two and four characters.

Postcode Area 

The postcode area is an alpha code that is one or two characters in length. The code commonly represents a geographical area. For example, “SW” represents London, “AB” is commonly Aberdeenshire, “BS” is often Avon, and so on.

Postcode District 

The postcode district is the postcode area plus an alphanumeric code, essentially making it the outward code.

Inward Code

The inward code represents the second half of the postcode, immediately following the single space separator in the middle. It is three characters in length. The inward code is used to assist in the delivery of mail within a district.

Postcode Sector 

The postcode sector is between four and six characters in length. It begins with the outward code, followed by the single space separator, and ends with the first digit of the inward code.

Postcode Unit 

The postcode unit is an alpha code that is two characters in length. In addition to representing a group of addresses, the postcode unit may also represent a unique premise, an individual organization, or even a subsection/department of an organization. Postcode unit level designation cannot be purchased; it is determined by the amount of mail received by the premises or organization.

Special Postcodes

Royal Mail will assign postcodes to some high-profile organizations such as banks and telecoms, as well as non-geographic postcodes for assignment to PO Boxes and direct marketing. It will also assign postcodes to crown dependencies, overseas territories, and HM British Forces.

Crown dependencies

The crown dependencies are three self-governing island territories off the coast of Britain for which the United Kingdom is responsible. However, they are not a part of the United Kingdom or its territories. These islands have adopted the UK postcode format.

Name Postcode area
Guernsey GY
Jersey JE
Isle of Man IM

Overseas Territories

There are 14 overseas territories in the United Kingdom. They may be commonly referred to as British Overseas Territories or the United Kingdom Overseas Territories. These territories are mostly self-governed, and some have developed their own postal codes, such as Bermuda, the Cayman Islands, the British Virgin Islands, and Montserrat.

British Forces Post Office

The British Forces Post Office (BFPO) and Royal Mail use the non-geographic postcode area “BF” to represent a BFPO address.

Address Validation International: Overcoming Cultural Idiosyncrasies and Postal Format Variables

The above content provides a general overview of addresses in the United Kingdom. Understanding all the ins-and-outs of UK addresses can be a monumental task on its own. In addition, the ever-changing list of addresses, postcodes, and regulatory boundaries involved can make for a very dizzying array of challenges. Fortunately, the DOTS Address Validation International real-time service is capable and robust enough to handle various address formats and cultural idiosyncrasies. As always, our experienced staff is here to help, so please do not hesitate to reach out to us! We would be happy to answer any follow-up questions you may have and make recommendations on how to interpret and use the results from the service.

 

 

 

DOTS Address Validation International (AVI) enables businesses to develop consistent addressing formats for your international addresses.

AVI Address Output: We Speak Your Language

You say tomato, I say tomahto.
You say Rome, I say Roma.
You say Munich, I say München.
Let’s Not call the whole thing off.

Have you ever wondered why the country code and abbreviation for Germany is DE, or similarly why it is ES for Spain? Unlike FR and CA, which are France and Canada respectively, DE and ES seem out of place for Germany and Spain. A simple explanation is that DE is short for Deutschland and ES is short for España – which are the names used locally for these countries.

Local names such as Deutschland and España are known as endonyms, and Germany and Spain are English language exonyms. You may be wondering, what are endonyms and exonyms? To put it simply, endonyms are the names of places used by the locals and exonyms are the names used by foreigners. So an endonym is what a country calls itself, and an exonym is the name used by other countries.

(As another example, United States is an endonym for, well, the United States. Meanwhile, exonyms for the United States will depend on the country involved: the French call us the États Unis and the Russians call us Соединенные Штаты.)

The DOTS Address Validation International (AVI) service currently offers three output language options to let the end user choose their preferred language setting and behavior: ENGLISH, BOTH (English and local addresses), and LOCAL_ROMAN. Let’s examine each of these in detail:

ENGLISH – Instructs the service to return the address in English, without any localized text or accents.

BOTH – Instructs the service to return a standardized address in both English and in its localized text (e.g., Cyrillic, Chinese, etc.) and format when applicable.

Here’s an example of a Chinese address in both English and in its local Chinese text.

Address input in English

No. 1514 Changyang Lu
Yangpu Qu, Shanghai Shi

Address output in Simplified Chinese

上海市杨浦区长阳路1514号

 

Here’s an example of a Russian address in both English and Cyrillic.

Address input in English

Kommunarov Ul, 290, 9
Krasnodar
Krasnodarskiii Kraii
350020

Address output in Cyrillic

Коммунаров ул, д. 290, OFFICE 9
КРАСНОДАР
КРАСНОДАРСКИЙ КРАЙ
350020

 

One last example, this time in Greece.

Address input in English

Alkamenous 76
104 40 Athens

Address output in Greek

104 40 Αθηνα
Αλκαμενους 76

 

LOCAL_ROMAN – Instructs the service to return the address in its local spelling using Roman text.

For example, the city of Rome will be returned as Roma, Naples as Napoli, Dublin as Baile Átha Cliath, Naestved as Næstved, and Cologne as Köln. Let’s take a look at some address examples.

Here’s an example of an address in Italy.

Address input in English

Via Villafranca 20
00185 Rome RM

Address output in Italian

Via Villafranca 20
00185 Roma RM

 

Example of an address in Denmark

Address input in English

Kobmagergade 20
4700 Naestved

Address output in Danish

Købmagergade 20
4700 Næstved

 

Example of an address in Germany.

Address input in English

Weisshausstr. 20-30
50939 Cologne

Address output in German

Weißhausstr. 20-30
50939 Köln

 

The service also has the ability with some countries to accept an address in its localized spelling and text and return the address in English. Try entering any of the address examples above into the AVI service using the local language, spelling, and format with the output language set English to see the address validated and standardized into English. When submitting an address in a non-English language, be careful to ensure that the text is properly encoded.

The AVI service cannot correct corrupted characters, so it is important to ensure that anything that will hold the address in memory and stores the data can support the character set. Otherwise, you will end up with data corruption, which is not always easy to detect or fix.

For example, in some cases, a character may simply come back as a question mark ‘?’ or a square ‘■’. Take the following address.

Weißhausstr. 20-30
50939 Köln

The fourth character of the first line and the eighth character of the second line will come back corrupted, as follows:

Weihausstr. 20-30
50939 K?ln

 

In other cases, the corruption can be quite severe, and you may end up with something like ‘تخت اره ÙŠÚ©’. Not only is it important to ensure that you do not send any corrupted data to the AVI service, but you also want to make sure that you properly handle and store the service response. Otherwise you may end up corrupting an address after it has been validated. (How this happens would make a good topic for another blog, but for now, just make sure to use the Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) on everything that handles the data.)

Each of these options gives you the flexibility to have a consistent addressing format for your international addresses, depending on your location, your customers, and your mailing conventions. All of them provide an automated, consistent approach to address validation. Whether it is addressing mail to customers in the format of their home countries, translating addresses, or ensuring readability for the sender, DOTS Address Validation International truly speaks your language.

Address Suggestion with Validation: A Match Made in Heaven

In an ideal world, data entry would always be perfect. Sadly, it isn’t – human errors happen to end users and call center employees alike. And while we make a good living cleaning existing bad data here at Service Objects, we would still much rather see your downstream systems be as clean as possible.

To help with that, many organizations are getting an assist with Google, in the form of the Autocomplete with their Places API.  If you setup your form properly and use their API you can have address suggestions appear in a dropdown for your end users to take advantage of to help enter correct data into your system. That’s great, isn’t it?

It does sound great on the surface, but when you dig a little deeper there are two problems:

  • First, Google Places API often does not often suggest locations to the apartment or suite level of detail. The point is that a considerable segment of the population lives in apartments or does business on separate floors, suites or buildings.
  • Second, the locations the Google Places API suggests are often not mail deliverable. For instance, a business may have a physical location at one address and receive mail at a completely different address.  Or sometimes Google will just make approximations as to where an address should be.

For example, check this address out on Google Maps: 08 Kings Rd, Brighton BN1 1NS, UK.  It looks like a legitimate address, but as the street view shows, it does not seem to correspond to anything.

These issues can leave gaping holes in your data validation process.  So, what can you do? Contact us at Service Objects, because we have the perfect solution: our Address Suggestion form tool. When combined with the Google Places API you will have a powerful tool that will both save time and keep the data in your system clean and valid.

This form tool is a composite of the Google Places API and our Address Validation International service.  The process consists of the data entry portion, the Google Paces API lookup, then the Address Validation International service call, finally displaying selectable results to the end user.

Let’s start by discussing the Google API Key, and then the form, and finally the methods required to make that Google Places API call.

Google Places API requires a key to access it.  You can learn more about this API here.  Depending on your purposes you may be able to get away with using only Google’s free API key but if you are going to be dealing with large volumes of data then the premium API key will be needed.  That doesn’t mean you can’t get started with the free version: we in fact use it to put our demos together, and it works quite well.

When setting up your key with Google, remember to also turn on the Google Maps Javascript API, or else calls to the Places API will fail.  Also, pay particular attention to the part about restricting access with the API key.  When you have a premium key this will be very important because it will allow you to set the level at which you want the key to be locked down, so that others can’t simply look at your Javascript code and use your key elsewhere.

The form we need to create will look like a standard address data entry form, but with some important details to note.  First let’s look at the country select box: we recommended that this be the first selection that the user makes. Choosing a country first benefits both you and the user, because it will limit suggested places to this country, and will also reduce the number of transactions against your Google Places API key.  Here is a link to how Google calculates its transaction totals.

Another important note is that we need to have the Apt/Suite data entry field.  As mentioned earlier, the Google Places API often does not return this level of resolution on an address, so we add this field for the information be provided by the end user.

The rest of the fields are really up to you in how you display them.  In our case, we display the parsed-out components of the results from selected address back into the rest of the address fields.  We keep all the address input fields editable so that the end user can make any final adjustments they want.

The methods associated with this process can be summarized by a set of initializations that happen in two places: first, when a country is selected, and second, when the focus is on the Address field by a user clicking into it.  For our purposes we default the country selection to the United States, however when the country is changed the Autocomplete gets reinitialized to the selected country. And when a user clicks into the Address field, the initialization creates a so-called bias, e.g. Autocomplete returns results based on the location of your browser.  For this functionality to work, the end user’s browser will ask to let Google know its location.  If the user does not permit Google to know this the suggestion is turned off and does not work.

This bias has a couple of interesting features.  For instance, you can change the code to not utilize the user’s browser location but instead supply a custom latitude and longitude.  In our example, the address suggestion does not end up using the user’s current position when the selected country is not in the same country as the user.  But when the user is in the same country as the selected country then the results returned by the Google Places API are prioritized to your location.  This means that if you are in Santa Barbara, CA and select the United States as the country, when you start typing a United States address you will first see matching addresses in Santa Barbara, and then work outward from there.

You can customize the form bias to any particular location that you have a latitude and longitude for.  The ability to change this bias is very useful in that setting the proper bias will reduce the number of lookups against the Google Places API before finding an address match, and will also save manual typing time.

Now let’s discuss the Address Validation International service API call, which consists of a key, the call to the service and setting up best practices for failover.

Let’s start with the key.  You will need to either have a live or free trial license key from us, the latter of which can be gotten here.  For this example, a trial key will work fine for exploring and tinkering with this integration.  One of the great things about using our service is that when you want to turn this into a live production-ready solution, all you have to do is switch out the key from the trial to the production key and switch the endpoint to the production URL, both of which can be done in minutes.

The call to the Address Validation International service will be made to either the trial or production endpoints, which will depend on the key that you are using.  The details of the service and how to integrate with it can be found in our developer guides.  In the Javascript code you will round up all the data in the fields that were populated by the address suggestion selection and send them off to the service for validation.  The code that manages the call to the Address Validation International service needs to be executed on some back-end server client.

It is strongly discouraged to make the call to the service directly from Javascript, because it will expose your license and allow someone to take it and use your transactions maliciously.  You can read more about those dangers here.  Also, here is a blog about how to make a call to another one of our services using a proxy.  The basic idea is that your Javascript call will call the proxy method that contains your license key, essentially hiding it from the public.  This proxy method will make the final call to the Address Validation International service, get the results from it and pass those results back to the original call in the Javascript.  In this situation, the best place to implement failover is in the proxy method.

So what is failover? Failover, from the perspective of an end user developer, is just a secondary data center to call in the unlikely event that one of our primary data centers go down or does not respond in a timely manner.  Our developer guides can again help with this topic.  There you will also find code snippets that demonstrate our best practice failover.

Once this call is set up, all that is left is evaluating the results and displaying the appropriate message back to the end user. While you can go through our developer guides to figure this out, the first important field to examine in the response from the Address Validation International service is the Status field – here is a table of what is expected to be returned:

Address Status

Name Description
Invalid For addresses where postal and/or street level data is available, and the street was not found, bad building number, etc.
InvalidFormat For addresses where Postal data is unavailable and only the address format is known.
InvalidAmbiguous For possibly valid addresses that may be correctable, but ultimately failed validation.
Valid For addresses with postal level data that passed validation.
ValidInferred For addresses where potentially far reaching corrections/changes were made to infer the return address.
ValidApproximate For addresses where premise data is unavailable and interpolation was performed, such as Canadian addresses
ValidFormat For addresses where Postal data is unavailable and only the address format is known.

 

Another important field will be the ResolutionLevel, which can be one of the three following values: Premise, Street and City.  The values returned in these two fields will help you make a decision in the code with respect to what exactly you want to display back to the end user.  What we do in our demo is display the Status and ResolutionLevel to the end user along with the resulting address.  Then we give the user a side-by-side view of both the resulting address just mentioned and the original address the user entered.  This way the end user can make a decision based on everything we found. In the case shown here, for example, we updated Scotland to Dunbartonshire and validated to the premise resolution level.

There are many customizations that can be made to this demo, such as the example we mentioned earlier about setting up the bias.  Additionally, instead of using the Address Validation International service you could also create an implementation of this demo using our Address Validation US or our Address Validation Canada products.

Want to try this out for yourself? Just contact one of our Account Executives to get the code for this demo – we’ll be glad to help.

Our 2018 New Year’s Resolutions

A brand new year is upon us – and once again, many of us are making resolutions for 2018. Perhaps eating better, working harder, or even blowing a thick layer of dust off that exercise machine in our basement. The new year is always a great time to make a fresh start.

Here at Service Objects, we have our own resolutions for 2018 as well. Of course, ours are designed to help your 2018 marketing efforts be even more successful than last year. Here are some of the biggest ones on our list:

Automate your regulatory compliance. More than anything, 2018 will cap a growing era of global consumer rights and stiffer regulation. Between the pending May implementation of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the recent expansion of the US Telephone Consumer Protection Act (TCPA), your use of consumer contact data for marketing is more tightly controlled than ever. And ignorance of the law isn’t bliss: fines for TCPA violations run as high as $15,000 per violation, and GDPR violations can command fines as high as 4% of your gross turnover.

We can help you get started on your path to achieve compliance with both of these new regulations. For GDPR, which requires maintaining explicit customer permission for use of their personal data, products such as Address Validation International, Lead Validation International and Email Validation can flag European addresses for GDPR processing and clean your contact database at time of use. And for TCPA, which prohibits unsolicited calls to consumer cellular numbers, our GeoPhone Plus product can help ensure that customer contact numbers haven’t been ported to new mobile customers.

Help you move into global markets. The world is getting smaller every year, which means that your potential market is getting larger. We can help you validate and verify international leads with tools such as Address Validation International and Lead Validation International, to help you target your overseas marketing more effectively.

Reduce the amount of fraud in eCommerce transactions during sales peaks. Did you know that 2017 saw the largest online sales volumes ever for Black Friday and Cyber Monday? According to data from Adobe Analytics, consumers spent a record $11.6 billion dollars across these two peak sales days – and according to Forbes Magazine, fraudulent transactions spike during these peak periods as well. We have a wide range of solutions for eliminating online fraud, ranging from lead validation to best practices such as validating IP addresses, to ensure that order from Kansas isn’t originating in Kyrgyzstan.

Give your customers a better experience. Your business rises and falls with the service experiences you deliver your customers. Our flagship delivery accuracy solutions, powered by continually-updated USPS, Canada Post and international address databases, makes sure your products get to the right people at the right address every time. And even when customers slip up and give you an undeliverable address, our Address Detective product can help make things all better.

Lower your costs. Would you like to get better lead response rates in 2018? Keep your contact database clean and up-to-date as prospects move or change jobs? Or improve your marketing ROI by filtering out bogus or fraudulent leads? We can do all of that for you, and more. We have a whole smorgasbord of solutions that help you have genuine, accurate and up-to-date data, improve marketing campaign performance, ensure better leads, and do more with less.

One more thing that makes our New Year’s resolutions better than most people’s – we always keep ours! That’s why we have over 2400 clients and counting today. And we look forward to serving you in 2018.

GDPR Compliance: Is Your Business Ready?

If you conduct business in Europe, May 2018 will be an important date. This is when the planned introduction of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is scheduled to take effect.

GDPR represents a sweeping set of privacy regulations that impact your use of personal data from European citizens. If you conduct business with people from Europe – whether they are your customers, employees, or job prospects – GDPR affects you as well. It will require you to have policies in place to protect people’s personal data, as well as require notification when this data has been breached. And penalties for violations will be extremely stiff, up to the greater of 20 million Euros or 4% of your gross turnover.

GDPR starts with the definition of “personal data.” This is an extremely broad net: a recent article from Software Development magazine notes that the European Commission’s guidelines include both obvious data such name, address or email, and associated data ranging from bank accounts to photos and social media posts. Even the IP address a European is using on their computer is considered part of this personal data.

Much like the HIPAA requirements on electronic health care data in the United States, GDPR will require organizations to safeguard the personal data they collect and store in the course of doing business. At one level, this will involve technology such as encrypted data storage, password protection, and other approaches, along with policies and procedures for protecting this data. At another level, it obligates you to inform European consumers about your privacy policies, gain explicit consent to collect and use their personal data and provide them with the ability to control or opt-out of data collection. And in the event personal data is compromised, you need a plan for reaching people affected by the breach.

Each of these levels have important areas where data quality and GDPR compliance efforts intersect. Some of the questions businesses will have to ask themselves include:

  • Do we have accurate contact information for people we do business with in Europe?
  • Is there a notification procedure in place for our privacy and data policies, including opting out of data collection or making changes to personal data?
  • If a breach notification were necessary, do we have the means to quickly reach all affected parties?
  • How do we handle changes to contact information? What if a person in your database moves, changes jobs, or gets a new email address?

This means that your GDPR and data quality strategies will need to be closely linked. Tools such as international address verification, lead validation and name validation can help make sure data is complete and correct as it enters your system, and stays correct when it is needed later. As a recent article in Information Management points out, the key to GDPR compliance lies in proactively analyzing your data and performing a thorough risk assessment long before an actual privacy issue arises.

The European Union has long been on the vanguard of consumer protection legislation, and the new GDPR regulations are the latest in an effort to level the playing field between big data and the individual rights of its citizens. They have a global reach, whether you do business in Europe or serve Europeans from elsewhere. At a broader level, GDPR is part of a new reality that businesses will soon need to work with, one that is part of a larger trend toward increasing privacy regulations.

May 2018 is coming soon – is your business ready?

The Importance of Data Quality for International Ecommerce

In today’s era of online ecommerce, international sales represent a huge potential market for US vendors. According to research firm eMarketer, international sales represent three-quarters of a nearly US $2 trillion retail ecommerce market, nearly half of which comes from China alone. And much of this vast market is only a click away.

On the other hand, cross-border sales remain one of the greatest risks for fraud, with a rate that was more than twice that of domestic fraud through 2012, and despite recent improvements in data quality technology this rate is still 28% higher as of 2015. And one digital commerce site notes that while retailers are making progress at managing fraudulent transaction rates, they are doing so at the expense of turning away good customers – people who, in turn, may never patronize these sites again.

So how do you exploit a rich and growing potential market while mitigating your risk for fraud? The answer might surprise you. While nearly everyone preaches the importance of a fraud protection strategy for ecommerce, and suggestions abound in areas that range from credit card verification to IP geolocation, the head of ecommerce at industry giant LexisNexis points to one area above all: address verification.

In a recent interview with Multichannel Merchant, LexisNexis ecommerce chief Aaron Press points out that the biggest problem with international addresses is a lack of addressing standards between countries. “Postal codes have different formats, where you put the number, how the street is formatted. Normalizing all of that down to a set of parameters that can be published on an API is a huge challenge.”

This means that you need robust capabilities in any third-party solution that you choose to help verify international addresses. Some of the key things to look for include:

  • How many countries does the vendor support address formats for, and does this list include all of the countries where you do business?
  • Can the application handle multiple or nested municipality formats? For example, a customer may list the same location in Brazil correctly as Rio, Rio de Janeiro, Município do Rio de Janeiro – or even the sub-municipality of Guanabara Bay.
  • Will the application handle different spellings or translations for common areas? In the address above, for example, the country may be spelled as Brazil or Brasil. Likewise, the United Kingdom may also be referred to as England, British Isles, Karalyste, Birtaniya, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or even 英国 (Chinese for the United Kingdom, literally “England Kingdom”).
  • Can these capabilities can be implemented as an API within your ordering application? Or can it process addresses externally through batch processing?

In general, cross-border fraud prevention requires a multi-pronged effort involving all of the potential stress points in an international transaction, including international address verification, email validation, credit card BIN validation, IP address verification – even name validation, so you can flag orders addressed to Vladimir Putin or Homer Simpson. These are clearly capabilities that you outsource to a vendor, unless you happen to be sitting on hundreds of millions of global addresses and their country-specific formats. The good news is that in an era of inexpensive cloud-based applications, strong fraud protection is easily implemented nowadays as part of your normal order processing strategy.